U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Aerogel.
Aerogel also known as Xerogel. When most of the solvent is removed from the gel, the liquid content in the gel is much less than the solid content, or the medium in the gel space network structure is gas and the appearance is solid. This is a dry gel. It's called aerogel. Aerogel is a form of solid matter, the smallest dense solid in the world. The density is 3kg per cubic meter. A common aerogel is silicon aerogel, first produced by American scientist Kistler in 1931. There are many types of aerogels, including silicon, carbon, sulfur, metal oxides, metals, etc. Aerogel is a compound word where aero is an adjective meaning to fly and gel is clearly a gel. Literally means flying gel. The gel of any substance can be called aerogel, as long as it can be dried and the internal solvent can be removed, but its shape can basically remain unchanged.
Aerogel preparation method
Aerogel was originally named by S. Kistler. Because he successfully prepared silica aerogel by supercritical drying method, he defined aerogel as: the material obtained by supercritical drying of wet gel, called for aerogel. In the mid-to-late 1990s, with the emergence and development of atmospheric drying technology, the commonly accepted definition of aerogel in the mid-to-late 1990s is: no matter what drying method is used, as long as the liquid in the wet gel is replaced by gas Substitution, while the network structure of the gel remains basically unchanged, so the resulting materials are called aerogels. The structural feature of aerogel is a cylindrical multi-branched nanoporous three-dimensional network structure with high permeability, which has extremely high porosity, extremely low density, high specific surface area, and ultra-high pore volume ratio. Adjustable within the range of 0.003-0.500 g/cm-3. (The density of air is 0.00129 g/cm-3).
The preparation of aerogels usually consists of a sol-gel process and a supercritical drying process. In the sol-gel process, by controlling the hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction conditions of the solution, nano-clusters with different structures are formed in the solution, and the clusters adhere to each other to form a gel, while around the solid skeleton of the gel, Filled with liquid reagents left over from chemical reactions. In order to prevent the damage of the material structure caused by the surface tension in the micropores during the drying process of the gel, the supercritical drying process is adopted, and the gel is placed in a pressure vessel for heating and pressure, so that the liquid in the gel undergoes phase transformation. In the supercritical fluid, the gas-liquid interface disappears and the surface tension ceases to exist. At this time, the supercritical fluid is released from the pressure vessel, and a porous, disordered, low-density gas with a nanoscale continuous network structure can be obtained. gel material.
1. Making a Mars Expedition Spacesuit
In 2002, NASA formed a company that specializes in making stronger, more elastic aerogels. NASA has now determined that during its 2018 Mars expedition, astronauts will wear spacesuits made from a new type of aerogel. The company's senior scientist Mark Krajeowski said that as long as an 18-millimeter-thick aerogel layer is added to the spacesuit, it can help astronauts withstand high temperatures of 1,300 degrees Celsius and ultra-low temperatures of minus 130 degrees Celsius. "It's the most efficient thermostatic material I've ever seen," Mark said.
2. Bulletproof is not afraid of being bombed
Bulletproofing is a second important use for the new aerogel. NASA is testing residential and military vehicles built with aerogel. According to laboratory tests, if a layer of aerogel with a thickness of about 6 mm is added to the metal sheet, even if the explosive is detonated directly, the metal sheet will not be damaged.
3. Can deal with ecological disasters
Environmental protection is the third important role of the new aerogel. Scientists affectionately call aerogel a "super sponge" because of its millions of tiny pores, ideal for adsorbing pollutants in water. A newly invented aerogel by American scientists can now absorb lead and mercury from water. According to scientists, this aerogel is an excellent material for dealing with ecological disasters. For example, after the tanker "Sea Express" sank in 1996, 72,000 tons of crude oil was spilled. If the material had been used at the time, it would not have caused serious pollution to the entire coast.
4. Tennis rackets have stronger hitting ability
In the future, new aerogels will also enter the daily life of each of us. For example, the United States Dunlop Sports Equipment Company successfully developed a tennis racket containing aerogel. The tennis racket is said to be more capable of hitting the ball; earlier this year, 66-year-old Bob Stock became the first Briton to use aerogel for housing: "It's good for insulation and heating, and I'll use an air conditioner to keep the temperature down. Lowered it by 5°C, and the indoor temperature is still very comfortable." Climbers are also hopeful about the use of aerogel. British mountaineer Anne Parmenter used some of the aerogel material in the shoes she wore to climb Mount Everest last year, and has a layer of the new material in her sleeping bag.
The price of aerogels will vary randomly with production costs, transportation costs, international situations, exchange rates, and supply and demand in the aerogel market. Tanki New Materials Co., Ltd. aims to help industries and chemical wholesalers find high-quality, low-cost nanomaterials and chemicals by providing a full range of customized services. If you are looking for aerogels, please feel free to send an inquiry to get the latest prices for aerogels.
As a global aerogel supplier, Tanki New Materials Ltd. has extensive experience in the performance, application and cost-effective manufacturing of advanced and engineered materials. The company has successfully developed a series of powder materials (including boron carbide, aluminum carbide, titanium carbide, etc.), high-purity targets, functional ceramics and structural devices, and provides OEM services.
|Technical Parameter of Nanoparticle Silica Aerogel SiO2 Aerogel|
|Product Name||Specific Surface Area||Bulk Density||Particle Size||Porosity %||Aperture||Color|
|Silica Aerogel||600-800 m2/g||40-60 kg/m3||15-50nm||90-95||20-50nm||White|
|Silica Aerogel SiO2 Properties|
|Other Names||Silica Aerogel, SiO2 Aerogel, Aerogel.|
|Melting Point||1200 °C|
|Solubility in water||N/A|
|Silica Aerogel SiO2 Health & Safety Information|
The resurgence of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict continued to cause high volatility in commodity prices. Stubbornly high inflation and rising commodity prices are likely to influence each other and thus push each other higher. The price of the Aerogel may not decrease significantly in the short term.
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