The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. "
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a "normal" year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes boron carbide powder.
What is Boron Carbide B4C?
Boron carbide, also known as black diamond, is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula B4C. Hard black lustrous crystal.
It has a Mohs hardness of about 9.5, making it one of the three hardest materials known (after diamond and cubic boron nitride). Less fragile than most pottery. Used in tank armor, bullet-proof vests and many industrial applications. Relative density (D204)2.508 to 2.512. Melting point is 2350 ℃. The boiling point of 3500 ℃.
Boron carbide does not react with acid and alkali solution, has high chemical potential, does not react with acid and alkali solution, has high chemical potential, neutron absorption, wear resistance and semiconductor conductivity. It is one of the most stable to acids and is stable in all concentrated or dilute acid or alkaline solutions. Boron carbide is basically stable under 800℃ in the air environment, due to the higher temperature of the oxidation of boron oxide in the gas phase loss, resulting in its instability, oxidation to form carbon dioxide and boron trioxide.
It was discovered in the 19th century as a by-product of research on metal borides and was not studied scientifically until the 1930s. Boron carbide can be prepared by reducing boron trioxide with carbon in an electric furnace.
Because of its low density, high strength, high temperature stability and good chemical stability. In wear resistant materials, ceramic reinforcement, especially in light armor, reactor neutron absorbent applications. In addition, compared with diamond and cubic boron nitride, boron carbide is easy to manufacture, low cost, so it is more widely used, in some places can replace the expensive diamond, common in grinding, grinding, drilling and other applications.
What is Boron Carbide B4C Used For?
Controlled nuclear fission
Boron carbide can absorb large amounts of neutrons without forming any radioactive isotopes, making it an ideal neutron absorber for nuclear power plants, where neutron absorbers control the rate of nuclear fission. Boron carbide is mainly used in nuclear reactors as a controllable rod, but is sometimes made into a powder to increase surface area.
At the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, Russia finally stopped the chain reaction in the reactor after dropping nearly 2,000 tons of boron carbide and sand.
Boron carbide has been used as a coarse abrasive material for a long time. Because of its high melting point, it is not easy to cast into artifacts, but by melting the powder at high temperatures, it can be machined into simple shapes. Used for grinding, grinding, drilling and polishing of hard materials such as hard alloy and precious stone.
Boron carbide can also be used as a ceramic coating for warships and helicopters. It is lightweight and has the ability to resist armor-piercing bullets penetrating the hot-pressed coating as a whole.
It is used in the arms industry to make gun nozzles. Boron carbide, extremely hard and wear-resistant, does not react with acid and alkali, high/low temperature resistance, high pressure resistance, density ≥2.46g/cm3; Microhardness ≥ 3500kGF /mm2, bending strength ≥400MPa, melting point is 2450℃.
Because boron carbide nozzle has the characteristics of wear resistance and high hardness, boron carbide sandblasting nozzle will gradually replace the known carbide/tungsten steel and silicon carbide, silicon nitride, alumina, zirconia and other materials of the sandblasting nozzle.
Boron carbide is also used in the manufacture of metal borides and smelting of sodium boron, boron alloys and special welding.
Boron Carbide B4C Powder Supplier
RBOSCHCO is a trusted global chemical material supplier&manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and nanomaterials. The company export to many countries including the USA, Canada, Europe, UAE, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Egypt, Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Turkey, Mexico, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Brazil, Chile, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, etc.
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With Russia taking the lead on Poland and Bulgaria at the end of last month, there appears to be a growing sense of compromise within the EU over whether to accept Moscow's proposed rouble settlement order.
Italy's prime minister said recently that European companies would be able to buy gas in roubles without violating sanctions. This apparently ignores the guidance of hardliners in the EU to "fight to the end".
For weeks, European companies have been trying to find ways to meet Russia's payment demands for the rouble while maintaining vital gas supplies without violating sanctions against Moscow.
Late last month, European Commission President Von der Leyen said operating under the mechanism would violate sanctions and asked European companies not to bow to Russian demands. However, the EU has yet to issue more rigorous written guidelines on how companies should pay Gazprom.
The Italian prime minister said recently, "There is no official announcement from the European Union about what ruble settlement means for sanctions violations, and no one has said whether ruble payments violate sanctions or not. It's a grey area."
"In fact, most gas importers are already opening rouble accounts for deals with Gazprom,"
He also used German companies as a shield. He said Germany's largest gas importer had already paid in rubles. "In fact, we saw evidence yesterday that the largest gas importer in Germany has already paid in rubles."
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