A tanker carrying 650,000 barrels of Venezuelan crude oil is reportedly bound for Europe, the first time Venezuela has exported crude to Europe in the past two years under US sanctions. It is analyzed that the U.S. is making up for the European energy gap caused by the sanctions against Russia by giving the green light to Venezuelan oil exports. It is reported that Venezuela is rich in oil resources, with the current proven reserves of 300 billion barrels, ranked the world's first, oil export is also one of the country's economic pillars.
Germany will take emergency measures to ensure it meets its energy needs, including increasing its use of coal, the German government said recently, after a drop in gas supplies from Russia.
"In order to reduce gas consumption, it is necessary to reduce the use of gas for electricity generation," the Economy Ministry said in a statement. We're going to have to switch to more coal-fired power plants."
The measures announced that day also include an "auction" system to sell natural gas to manufacturers, according to reports. The German government says the system will help reduce gas consumption in manufacturing industries.
The measures come as Russian energy giant Gazprom recently warned that it would sharply cut gas supplies to Europe, the report said.
The supply and prices of international bulk al2o3 powder are still very uncertain.
On July 8, 2022, Shinzo Abe was shot while giving a speech in Nara City, Nara Prefecture, and died after being rescued. What if Shinzo Abe had been wearing a ceramic bulletproof vest?
The Development of bulletproof Materials
William, President of the United States in 1901. McEnley was stabbed to death and people began to look for bulletproof methods.
During World War I, the development of bulletproof vests entered a substantial stage, when the main method was to put steel plates in natural fiber fabrics. However, because the steel plate is too bulky and the bulletproof effect is not good, the bulletproof vest developed by various countries has not been really popularized.
During World War II, Britain first developed a bulletproof vest made of three high-manganese steel plates; soon after, the United States also developed a bulletproof vest made of aluminum alloy and high-strength nylon. These two kinds of bulletproof vests, both in terms of hardness and strength, have been greatly improved compared with the past, but they still do not solve the weight problem.
In the 1970s, DuPont developed a synthetic fiber called "Kevlar", and the bulletproof vest material has undergone a historic change. Kevlar attracts 1.6 times as much shrapnel energy as nylon and 2 times as much steel. The key is that it completely solves the bulletproof vest problem.
Nowadays, bulletproof technology has achieved overspeed development, and new bulletproof materials have been continuously developed. such as metal (special steel, aluminum alloy, titanium alloy), ceramic sheet (corundum, boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina), fiberglass, nylon, Kevlar, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber, liquid protective materials, and composite protective structural materials. At the same time, bulletproof materials are not only used to make bulletproof vests, but also can be widely used in aviation warships, armored combat vehicle systems and military and civil special vehicles.
Ceramic bulletproof material
Compared with traditional metal materials, ceramic materials have the characteristics of low density, high hardness, high strength, high elastic modulus, thermal shock resistance and radiation protection.
Single-phase bulletproof ceramic
Since the 21st century, bulletproof ceramics have developed rapidly, including alumina, silicon carbide, boron carbide, silicon nitride, titanium boride and so on, among which alumina ceramics, silicon carbide ceramics and boron carbide ceramics are the most widely used.
1. Alumina ceramics
As an ion bond compound, alumina ceramic has strong chemical bond force, high melting point (2050 ℃), good oxidation resistance and chemical inertia, and the sintered products have smooth surface, stable size and low price. therefore, it is widely used in all kinds of armored vehicles and military bulletproof clothing. However, Al2O3 has low ballistic performance due to its high density, low hardness and fracture toughness.
2. Boron carbide ceramics
Boron carbide is a strong covalent bond compound, covalent bond as high as 93.9%, with high melting point, extraordinary hardness (35~45GPa), second only to diamond and cubic boron nitride, especially near constant high temperature hardness and good mechanical properties, making B4C one of the high temperature wear resistant materials with great development potential. B4C has the lowest density among several commonly used armored ceramics, coupled with high elastic modulus, which makes it the first choice for materials in military armor and space fields. The main problems of B4C ceramics are its high price (about 10 times that of alumina) and high brittleness, which limits its wide application as single-phase protective armor.
3. Silicon carbide ceramics
Silicon carbide covalent bond is extremely strong and still has high strength bonding at high temperature. this structural feature gives silicon carbide ceramics excellent strength, high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, good thermal shock resistance and so on. at the same time, silicon carbide ceramic is one of the most potential high-performance armor protective materials with moderate price and high performance-to-price ratio.
Multiphase bulletproof ceramics
Although single-phase ceramics have certain bulletproof ability, the common problem is low fracture toughness and high brittleness. Therefore, the strengthening and toughening of bulletproof ceramics has always been a hot research direction. The strengthening and toughening methods mainly include multicomponent ceramic system composite, functionally graded ceramics, lamellar structure design and so on.
For example, Medvedovs ki has studied the silicon carbide matrix composites such as SiC-Al2O3, SiC-Si3N4-Al2O3, SiC-Si-Al2O3 and SiC-Si3N4-Si-Al2O3, and prepared them by pressureless sintering and reaction sintering. It is further proved that their physical properties such as hardness and energy absorption capacity are higher than those of the single material system. The protection coefficient of reaction sintered SiC based composite ceramics can reach grade 3 or grade 4. The prepared SiC-Si3N4-Al2O3 and reaction sintered SiC also have good multi-impact resistance.
Modern warfare has higher and higher requirements for the armored system, which requires not only to achieve omni-directional protection, but also not to interfere with the soldiers' movement ability, but to turn "passive" into "active" and develop the ability to identify targets in advance. And the use of bait trigger and physical destruction to destroy the "active armor" of incoming weapons has become a major advantage in combat. Transparent ceramics represented by alumina nitride (AlON) and magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl2O4) have been used in the field of armor protection, which can not only protect the human body but also observe the enemy situation at any time.
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On August 1, the European Union officially began to implement the "voluntary reduction" agreement on natural gas adopted last month. Under the agreement, EU member states will reduce gas demand by 15 per cent from the average consumption over the past five years through measures of their choice between August 1 this year and March 31 next year.
Several major German cities, such as Berlin, Hanover and Munich, have begun to take measures to reduce energy consumption. Berlin, for example, decided to turn off the lights of more than 200 tourist attractions at night. Berlin's municipal buildings will have indoor temperatures of no more than 20 degrees Celsius between October 1 and March 31 next year, and only nurseries, schools, nursing homes and hospitals can be exempted from energy-saving measures.
Spain's energy conservation plan forces companies, businesses and vehicles to limit air-conditioning temperatures in summer and heating temperatures in winter. The above-mentioned places must limit the air-conditioning temperature to more than 27 degrees Celsius in summer and the heating temperature below 19 degrees Celsius in winter. The plan requires that shop window lighting be turned off at 22:00. The plan also requires the administration to regularly review the heating systems of enterprises in order to avoid energy waste.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology is a trusted chemical manufacturer and supplier providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials. If you are looking for the al2o3 powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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